It’s a list of statements economists are supposed to agree with (bolding and cross outs are mine):
- Uncertainty about the timing of need for health care
isand its expense are the reasons for health insurance. Insurers have an incentive for favorable selection. I nsurance markets suffer adverse selection.
- Competitive insurance markets will use all known information to price risk.
- If regulation prevents premiums from reflecting risks, adverse selection will result.
- Insured people use more care.
Insured people have betterThe relationship between health insurance and health outcomes is uncertain, but probably small. Health insurance does not guarantee good health care.
- The relationship between spending on health and health outcomes is also uncertain, but (at the margin) is probably also small.
- Preventive care does not usually pay for itself.
- Employees pay for all employer-based health benefits; they offset wages or other benefits.
- Favorable tax treatment of employer-based health benefits leads to greater employer offers and more generous benefits.
- Employer-based plans serve a risk pooling function.
- Cost sharing reduces utilization.
- Physicians influence patients’ level of utilization.
Technological changeThird-party payment is the primary driver of increasing health care spending.
- Technological change tends to increase unit costs under third-party payment and reduce unit costs when patients pay the bill.
Level of educational attainment affects health.
- The better educated are healthier.
- Horizontal and vertical integration in the health sector
occurs inmay increase efficiency but may also reflect the pursuit of market power. Income inequality worsens health.
- Wealthier is healthier in every country, under every health care system.
- Shortfalls in revenue from one payer do not cause hospitals to raise prices to another.