Laws concerning nurse practitioners (NPs) vary across states, but the three biggest regulations that affect NPs are those that limit their ability to write prescriptions, to practice independently and to receive direct reimbursement from insurers:
- When doctors are required to supervise NPs when prescribing controlled substances, physician wages increase by 7 percent while nurse practitioner wages decrease by 14 percent.
- Those restrictions also increased the number of physician hours worked by 6 percent to 9 percent while decreasing the number of hours worked by nurse practitioners by 6 percent to 14 percent.
- The price of a well-child medical exam rises by 3 percent to 16 percent due to these laws.
However, none of these regulations appeared to reduce infant mortality rates or malpractice premiums
Source: NBER Working Paper.